Latest research on Apidra

Insulin glulisine is a biosynthetic, rapid-acting human insulin analogue produced in a non-pathogenic laboratory strain of _Escherichia coli_ (K12). This recombinant hormone differs from native human insulin in that the amino acid arginine at position B3 is replaced by lysine and the lysine at position B29 is replaced by glutamic acid. These structural modifications decrease hexamer formation, stabilize insulin glulisine monomers and increase the rate of absorption and onset of action compared to human insulin.

Latest findings

For diabetes, we found that the reviews for seven drugs (Apidra, Symlin, Exubera, Januvia, Janumet, Victoza and Bydureon) discussed the rationale for use of surrogates and three of them (Symlin, Victoza and Bydureon) justified choosing glycaemic control as an outcome by clearly stating the evidence that corresponds to the highest level of evidence for surrogacy using the ICH-9 criteria. [source, 2015]
For protein quantification, mice were euthanized by cervical dislocation 10 min after an IP injection of 1 mg of insulin (Apidra) per kg body weight or saline, and tissues (liver, soleus muscle and epididymal white adipose tissue) were rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C until further analysis. [source, 2015]
The patient's current drug prescriptions include Lantus 10 U/day, Apidra 6 U #3/day, and Nutriflex lipid peri [+ Humulin-R (regular insulin) 15 U] every other day (EOD), and chemotherapy was paused due to general weakness. [source, 2015]
Stimulations included: insulin neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) (Insuman Basal, Sanofi Aventis, Paris, France), insulin glargine (Lantus, Sanofi Aventis), first metabolite of glargine (M1, Sanofi Aventis), second metabolite of glargine (M2, Sanofi Aventis), glulisine (Apidra, Sanofi Aventis), lispro (Humalog, Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, IN, USA), insulin X10 (not marketed, Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd, Denmark), Aspart (B28Asp, Novo Nordisk), detemir (Levemir, Novo Nordisk) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) (Increlex, Ipsen, Basking Ridge, NJ, USA). [source, 2015]
T1D treatment involved the recombinant human insulin, NPH (67%); regular insulin (33%); synthetic rapid-acting insulin, NovoRapid (52%); and others: Humalog, Lantus, Levemir and Apidra (~10%). [source, 2015]
Another rapid-acting insulin analogue, produced in E. coli is Glulisine (Apidra) which was developed by Aventis Pharmaceuticals and approved by US regulatory authorities in 2004. [source, 2014]
Apidra is then commenced at this meal and again adjusted to a simple protocol based on an average PPBGL over three days related to that mealtime (see Additional file 3). [source, 2014]
The test was positive for NPH and Lispro, while it was negative for Glargine, Detemir (Levemir), and glulisine (Apidra). [source, 2014]
In another study of surgical patients treated with glargine and Apidra, the frequency of hypoglycemia (glucose <3.9 mmol/L) was 23% (16). [source, 2013]
Scheduled subcutaneous insulin therapy consists of the following components: Basal insulin administered as glargine, detemir, or neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin once or twice a day; nutritional (prandial, bolus) insulin administered as short-acting (regular) or as a rapid acting insulin (lispro, Aspart, Apidra) prior to meals or scheduled according to administration of other nutritional supplements such as enteral or parenteral nutrition and correction (supplemental) insulin to cover glycemic excursions above the desired range in patients already on scheduled basal or basal bolus insulin [Table 1]. [source, 2013]