The following exclusion criteria were used in the study: (1) any current Axis I or Axis II psychiatric disorder (this selection criterion was used to exclude other major psychiatric conditions in the study group so as to avoid potential issues with applicability of the study: to ensure this a semistandardized interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) compatible with DSM-IV diagnostic criteria  was performed on all potential subjects); (2) history of intolerability, hypersensitivity or allergy to Atomoxetine
, or use of Atomoxetine
within 30 days of screening; (3) presence of disorders that could conceivable be exacerbated by Atomoxetine
(specifically, narrow angle closure glaucoma, urinary outflow obstruction, hypertension, and neurological disorders, particularly tics and Tourette's syndrome, or a history of epilepsy or seizures); (4) use of concomitant medication that could potentially interact with Atomoxetine
including monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), antihypertensive medication, or any concomitant medication that was a cytochrome 2D6 inhibitor (CYP2D6), since Atomoxetine
's elimination involves the CYP2D6 system; (5) use of any recreational or illegal drugs in the 3 months prior to the study, of individuals who met criteria for alcohol dependence or alcohol abuse in the 3 months prior to the study; (6) presence of any suicidal ideations during screening testing.