Latest research on Azithromycin

Azithromycin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic of the azalide class. Like other macrolide antibiotics, azithromycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit of the bacterial 70S ribosome. Binding inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with amino acid translocation during the process of translation. Its effects may be bacteriostatic or bactericidal depending of the organism and the drug concentration. Its long half life, which enables once daily dosing and shorter administration durations, is a property distinct from other macrolides.

Latest findings

Several in vitro models using either human or animal cells have been developed to study the activity of antibiotics against intracellular S. aureus, and a corresponding in vivo model (murine peritonitis) has recently been described and tested with antibiotics, including Linezolid, β-lactams, Gentamicin, Azithromycin, rifampicin, or dicloxacillin5650. [source, 2016]
Current treatment recommendations for MAC lung disease include a macrolide such as CLARITHROMYCIN (CAM) or Azithromycin (AZM), Ethambutol (EB) and a rifamycin such as rifampicin (RFP) or Rifabutin (RBT) [1]. [source, 2016]
A randomized trial of the macrolide Azithromycin, taken daily for 1 year in addition to usual therapy, demonstrated a significant reduction in the risk of exacerbations in patients with COPD at increased risk of exacerbation. [source, 2016]
Neither has evidence of airflow obstruction (normal FEF25-75, with FEV1 at 90% and 79% for the older and younger sibling, respectively) and both are clinically stable with regular chest physiotherapy, Azithromycin Antibiotic prophylaxis and acid suppression with Omeprazole. [source, 2016]
The macrolide Azithromycin, which is commonly used in patients with COPD, is only a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 and is expected to interact with roflumilast to a much lesser degree than Erythromycin.30 [source, 2016]
Exclusion criteria were: (1) history of prior ear or mastoid surgery, not including myringotomy or myringotomy with tympanostomy tube (TT); (2) designated for any other surgical procedure that would occur concurrently with TTP, such as but not limited to adenoidectomy or tonsillectomy; (3) history of sensorineural hearing loss; (4) history of chronic or recurrent bacterial infections other than otitis media that likely will require treatment with antibiotics during the course of the trial; (5) history of tympanic membrane perforation; (6) history of known immunodeficiency disease; (7) abnormality of the tympanic membrane or middle ear that would preclude precise placement of trial drug or intratympanic injection; (8) topical nonsteroidal otic agents within 1 day of randomization; (9) use of Nasal, inhaled, and topical steroids during the trial; (10) any infection requiring systemic Antimicrobial or Antifungal agents; (11) topical or systemic Antimicrobial or Antifungal agents; Amoxicillin with Clavulanate potassium, Cefdinir, Ceftriaxone, and Cephalexin within 3 days of randomization; Doxycycline and fluoroquinolones within 7 days; and Azithromycin within 14 days of randomization; (12) concurrent use of oral anti-inflammatory agents; (13) history of Allergy to Ciprofloxacin or any of the components of OTO-201; (14) clinically significant illness or medical condition that in the opinion of either the investigator or medical monitor would prohibit the patient from participating in the trial; (15) use of an investigational drug or device in the month prior to screening; (16) previous exposure to OTO-201; and (17) menarcheal or post-menarcheal female. [source, 2016]
The strain was tested for susceptibility to 30 µg amoxiclav, 10 μg Ampicillin, 10 U penicillin, 30 µg Vancomycin, 30 μg cefotaxime, 10 μg Erythromycin, 15 μg Azithromycin, 10 µg Gentamicin, 30 µg Amikacin, 30 μg Kanamycin, 2 μg Clindamycin, 30 μg Doxycycline, 5 µg Ciprofloxacin, 30 μg neomycin, 30 μg Chloramphenicol, 30 μg TETRACYCLINE (Becton–Dickinson, USA) and 1.25 μg/23.75 μg trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Oxoid, UK). [source, 2016]
As can be seen from Table 5, the strain was resistant to macrolides such as Erythromycin and Azithromycin, as well as to Chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. [source, 2016]
In a study which was conducted in Iraq (24), P. aeruginosa strains showed sensitivity to Amikacin, Erythromycin and penicillin, while showed resistance to penicillin, Erythromycin, and Norfloxacin, Amoxicillin, Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid and Azithromycin. [source, 2016]
Other factors such as pancreatic insufficiency, atopic status, BMI, baseline treatment (Azithromycin, inhaled corticosteroid therapy, and Antibiotic therapy), persistent infection (with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus), detection of new bacteria at V2 (all pathogens included and for each bacteria species), spirometrics parameters (i.e., FEV1% drop between V1 and V2) and therapeutic features (i.e., adapted PEx antibiotherapy according to ECFS guidelines 2014,12 intravenous treatment, duration of Antibiotic treatment) were not significantly associated with failure to improve FEV1 above 5% after PEx treatment (Table 2). [source, 2016]