Latest research on Captopril

Captopril is a potent, competitive inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Captopril may be used in the treatment of hypertension.

Latest findings

The expression and activity of ACE2 is upregulated by treatment with ACE inhibitors, such as Captopril, promoting increased local production of Ang (1–7) (Ferrario, 2005; Ferrario et al., 2005). [source, 2016]
These results explain the role of Ang II/AT1 receptor in inducing T-cell adhesion/migration in vitro and reduced sequestration of total CD3+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the brain of mice infected with P. berghei ANKA when treated with Captopril, an ACE inhibitor (Figure 2) (Silva-Filho et al., 2013). [source, 2016]
In addition to decreased T-cell sequestration in the brain, inhibition of Ang II/AT1 receptor signaling using Losartan or Captopril in P. berghei ANKA-infected mice promoted some survival benefits and attenuation of signals involved in the development of cerebral malaria, such as cerebral oedema (Silva-Filho et al., 2013). [source, 2016]
It is well known that Captopril increases the levels of Ang(1–7). [source, 2016]
Our results, schematically represented in Figures 1, 2, clearly indicate that by promoting Ang II conversion to Ang (1–7) by Captopril treatment, Ang (1–7) stimulates MAS receptors on erythrocytes, inhibiting PKA activity with a consequent decrease in parasite invasion and growth (Figure 1). [source, 2016]
At same time, decreased AT1R stimulation on T lymphocytes by blocking receptors with Losartan or by decreasing Ang II levels with Captopril reduces the exacerbated and harmful pro-inflammatory response mediated by these cells (Figure 2). [source, 2016]
Indeed, as discussed earlier, Silva-Filho et al. (2013) observed that both Captopril (an ACE inhibitor) and Losartan (an AT1R antagonist) treatments reduced parasitemia in mice infected with P. berghei ANKA, probably by increasing Ang (1–7) levels, and reduced T-cell activation, adhesion, migration, and sequestration in the brain by inhibiting AT1R stimulation in these cells. [source, 2016]
Losartan and Valsartan, both ARBs, have been proven to be “not inferior” to Captopril, an ACEI, in patients with AMI and heart failure and/or LV systolic dysfunction [8-10]. [source, 2016]
In OPTIMAAL, Losartan was associated with a significant increase in cardiovascular mortality compared to Captopril. [source, 2016]
In VALIANT, Valsartan was “non-inferior” to Captopril in patients with high risk for MACE after AMI. [source, 2016]