Latest research on Clonidine

Clonidine, an imidazoline-derivative hypotensive agent is a centrally-acting α2-adrenergic agonist. It crosses the blood-brain barrier and acts in the hypothalamus to induce a decrease in blood pressure. It may also be administered as an epidural infusion as an adjunct treatment in the management of severe cancer pain that is not relieved by opiate analgesics alone. Clonidine may be used for differential diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in hypertensive patients. Other uses for clonidine include prophylaxis of vascular migraine headaches, treatment of severe dysmenorrhea, management of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, rapid detoxification in the management of opiate withdrawal, treatment of alcohol withdrawal used in conjunction with benzodiazepines, management of nicotine dependence, topical use to reduce intraocular pressure in the treatment of open-angle and secondary glaucoma and hemorrhagic glaucoma associated with hypertension, and in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clonidine also exhibits some peripheral activity.

Latest findings

In order to enhance the onset of akinesia and increased tissue diffusion, additives like hyaluronidase,[4] Adrenaline,[5] Clonidine,[6] corticosteroids,[7] sodium bicarbonate[8] and neuromuscular blocking agents[91011] have been used in peribulbar block. [source, 2016]
Various adjuvants, that is, Clonidine, Fentanyl, ATRACURIUM, Rocuronium, corticosteroids have been used to enhance the onset and duration of akinesia and quality of the peribulbar block. [source, 2016]
El-Hamid[18] also found the significant rapid onset of globe and lid akinesia in the Magnesium group patients compared with the Clonidine group patient as an adjuvant to local Anesthetic in peribulbar block for posterior segment eye surgeries. [source, 2016]
When Magnesium was compared with Clonidine as an adjunct for epidural Bupivacaine, the onset of anesthesia was rapid, but the duration of analgesia was shorter in Magnesium group in comparison to Clonidine group. [source, 2016]
Sedation was seen in the Clonidine group. [source, 2016]
El-Hamid[18] also found the longer duration of peribulbar block in the patients receiving Clonidine with local Anesthetic in comparison to the patients receiving Magnesium. [source, 2016]
There are a number of studies on the use of intrathecal Clonidine or Fentanyl with Bupivacaine in various lower abdominal surgeries.[345] [source, 2016]
Our study aimed at using intrathecal Bupivacaine alone, Bupivacaine along with Fentanyl and Clonidine. [source, 2016]
Patients were given subarachnoid block with 2 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine along with Clonidine 30 µg (0.2 ml) and 0.3 ml of normal saline. [source, 2016]
Our study results are in accordance with previous study conducted by Sia[14] in which onset of sensory block was rapid in patients receiving Clonidine with Bupivacaine and Sufentanyl as compared to patients who received Bupivacaine and Sufentanyl. [source, 2016]