Latest research on Cocaine

An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake. [PubChem]

Latest findings

A 30-year-old male, smoker, without family history for congenital or acquired cardiovascular diseases, was referred to our department because of chest/epigastric pain and syncope due to ventricular fibrillation after Cocaine overdose. [source, 2016]
During hospitalization he progressively developed lesion, ischemia, and then necrosis waves in diaphragmatic leads at the electrocardiogram (ECG); moreover the toxicological test results confirmed the recent Cocaine abuse, while laboratory ones showed increased troponin I (peak 23.9 ng/mL) and N-Terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (peak 2356 pg/mL) levels. [source, 2016]
The following diseases have been studied: Alzheimer's disease, hypertension, type I diabetes, heart attack, sepsis, fatty liver disease, alcohol-induced steatohepatitis, Doxorubicin, and Cocaine cardiotoxicity [56, 57]. [source, 2016]
In this area, leptin binds to its receptors, expressed in two different neuronal populations: the ones that express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and those that express the peptide Cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript (CART) and the peptide pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). [source, 2016]
Heroin addicts are notorious polydrug users, with alcohol (Ethanol), Cocaine, benzodiazepines, and Amphetamine use reported by Heroin users and observed in Heroin overdose post-mortem analyses (Darke and Hall, 2003; Hickman ). [source, 2016]
Six gene sets were dose-dependently downregulated, including genes involved in Cocaine reward [33], involved in the regulation of inhibitory GABAergic synapse through NpaS4 [38], regulated by exercise [39], or regulated during the EGF response [40]. [source, 2016]
Our GSEA analysis revealed that the genes found “upregulated in the nucleus accumbens after Cocaine treatment” were also upregulated in the striatum of Del/+ mice, whereas they were downregulated in the striatum of Dup/+ mice. [source, 2016]
Similarly, a study of 4,159 high school students found that having a sexual minority orientation was associated with an increased lifetime frequency of use of Cocaine, anabolic steroids, inhalants, and other illegal and injectable drugs. [source, 2016]
This particular factor was created using the questions, "During the past 30 days, how many times did you use any form of Cocaine, including powder, crack, or freebase?" and "During the past 30 days, how many times have you sniffed glue, breathed the contents of aerosol spray cans, or inhaled any paints or sprays to get high? [source, 2016]
DA reuptake can be inhibited by Cocaine and amphetamines, but each has a different mechanism of action [18]. [source, 2016]