Latest research on Copaxone

Glatiramer acetate consists of the acetate salts of synthetic polypeptides, containing four naturally occurring amino acids: L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-tyrosine, and L-lysine with an average molar fraction of 0.141, 0.427, 0.095, and 0.338, respectively. The average molecular weight of glatiramer acetate is 5,000-9,000 daltons. It is an immunomodulator, licensed in much of the world for reduced frequency of relapses in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

Copaxone dosage

The first is the presentation and dose of GA; the previously mentioned study used Copaxone (Teva Pharmaceuticals) at a dose of 67–80 mg/kg. [source, 2015]
Our model employed the peptide COP-1 emulsified in an equal volume of CFA at a dose of 0.57–0.63 mg/kg after T cell dose-response proliferation assays yielded this as the optimal concentration (data not shown). [source, 2015]
Copaxone produced a dose-dependent increase in IL-4 release from these Th2-polarized T cells (Fig 2B); a similar dose effect was seen with the other cytokines (data not shown). [source, 2015]
Compared with our study, in which cells harvested from mouse lymph nodes were isolated 11 days after immunization and were further expanded from a CD4+ T-cell population, Bakshi et al [29] used cells harvested from mouse spleens 3 days after immunization with a single dose of Copaxone. [source, 2015]
Relatively few head-to-head studies have been conducted among the BRACE therapies and discussion here is confined to those involving IFN beta-1b: versus IFN beta-1a IM, the Independent Comparison of Interferons (INCOMIN) trial [40]; versus IFN beta-1a SC [41]; versus IFN beta-1a both IM and SC [42]; and versus GA, the Betaferon Efficacy Yielding Outcomes of a New Dose (BEYOND; ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00099502) trial [43] and the Betaseron versus Copaxone in Multiple Sclerosis with Triple-Dose Gadolinium and 3-Tesla MRI Endpoints (BECOME; ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00176592) trial [44]. [source, 2014]
Eosinophilia is listed as an “infrequent” adverse effect in the Copaxone package insert, and it has only been consistently shown to occur in a dose-dependent fashion in rat and monkey models [4, 6]. [source, 2014]
More recently, in the BECOME (Betaseron vs. Copaxone in MS with Triple-Dose Gadolinium and 3-T MRI Endpoints) study, the effect of IFN-β-1b and GA on new active lesions was tested on the 3 T optimized protocol (3 T MRI scanner, a triple dose of Gd, with a 20-min scanning time delay after Gd injection) in 75 patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS who underwent serial monthly MRI scans over 12 months [20]. [source, 2012]
The BECOME (Betaseron vs Copaxone in Multiple Sclerosis with Triple-Dose Gadolinium and 3-Tesla MRI Endpoints) study was a head-to-head study conducted to determine the efficacy of treatment with IFNβ-1b or GA as assessed by monthly brain MRI. [source, 2010]
The DMTs included in the scheme were three beta-interferon products (Avonex, Betaferon and Rebif in two doses) and glatiramer acetate (Copaxone). [source, 2009]