Latest research on Copaxone

Glatiramer acetate consists of the acetate salts of synthetic polypeptides, containing four naturally occurring amino acids: L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-tyrosine, and L-lysine with an average molar fraction of 0.141, 0.427, 0.095, and 0.338, respectively. The average molecular weight of glatiramer acetate is 5,000-9,000 daltons. It is an immunomodulator, licensed in much of the world for reduced frequency of relapses in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

Copaxone interactions

Patients with a diagnosis of RRMS were eligible if they had been continuously treated with an approved DMT—interferon (IFN) (Avonex, Betaferon, Extavia, or Rebif) or GA (Copaxone)—for at least 30 days, and if informed consent was given prior to study inclusion. [source, 2016]
Of the thirty-three RR-MS patients, fourteen patients were on interferon-β1a (Avonex, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA USA), ten patients were on interferon-β1a (Rebif, Merck Serono, Rockland, MA, USA), seven patients were on interferon-β1a (Betaseron, Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Montville, NJ, USA), ten patients were on glatiramer acetate (Copaxone, Teva pharmaceuticals, North Wales, PA, USA) and one patient was on natalizumab (Tysabri, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA USA). [source, 2015]
Of the twelve PP-MS patients, four were on interferon-β1a (Avonex, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA USA), two patients were on interferon-β1a (Rebif, Merck Serono, Rockland, MA, USA), four patients were on interferon-β1a (Betaseron, Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Montville, NJ, USA) and two patients were on glatiramer acetate (Copaxone, Teva pharmaceuticals, North Wales, PA, USA). [source, 2015]
In addition 0.5 mL of either Copaxone, Probioglat (100 μg/mL) or Mannitol (200 μg/mL) was added, total volume in each well was 1mL. [source, 2015]
Final concentration of Copaxone and Probioglat was 50 μg/mL and Mannitol final concentration was 100 μg/mL. [source, 2015]
Similar results were obtained when using Mannitol as reference (i.e., the same set of genes were significantly upregulated in Probioglat relative to Copaxone). [source, 2015]
We found that levels of TROVE2, SSB, poly(A) + Y1 RNA and poly(A) + U1 snRNA were close to CTRL levels in RRMS subjects on Betaseron therapy compared to RRMS subjects on either Copaxone or no immunomodulatory therapy (Figure 6A, B). [source, 2015]
COP-1 is a synthetic peptide that consists of four amino acids (Alanine, lysine, Glutamic acid, and TYROSINE) in a fixed molar ratio[10]. [source, 2015]
CD4+ T cells were rechallenged ex vivo for 3 to 4 days with Copaxone 20 μg/mL presented using the Mitomycin C-treated splenocytes as APCs followed by a period of maintenance for 10 days in the presence of 20 ng/mL murine interleukin-2 (mIL-2; PeproTech, Rocky Hill, NJ, USA). [source, 2015]
The Th2 phenotype of these cells, which were exclusively responsive to Copaxone, was further verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; Meso Scale Discovery, Rockville, MD, USA); mouse Th1/Th2 (9-plex); custom IL-6, IL-13, IL-17 (3-plex), and mouse TGF-β1Quantikine (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN, USA) ELISA kits for Th1, Th2, Th17; and other cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], and transforming growth factor-beta 1 [TGF-β1]). [source, 2015]