Latest research on Dopamine

One of the catecholamine neurotransmitters in the brain. It is derived from tyrosine and is the precursor to norepinephrine and epinephrine. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (receptors, dopamine) mediate its action. [PubChem]

Latest findings

Examples include monoamine oxidase B [MAOB] [22], the Dopamine D4 receptor [DRD4] [23], the Dopamine transporter [SLC6A3] [24], TYROSINE hydroxylase [TH] [25] and Dopamine beta-hydroxylase [DHB] [25]. [source, 2016]
Taken together these results suggest that selection for behavioral traits related to aggression in dogs has targeted a variety of pathways, particularly those involving the synthesis, transport and degradation of neurotransmitters such as Dopamine. [source, 2016]
The proteins encoded by these genes are involved in the deamination of Dopamine, serotonin, Adrenaline and NorAdrenaline. [source, 2016]
Another gene we identify is TH, which encodes TYROSINE hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of Dopamine and Noradrenaline [66]. [source, 2016]
Startlingly, the gene encoding DOPA decarboxylase (Aromatic-L-Amino-Acid decarboxylase), which transforms L-DOPA into Dopamine, also has a putatively functional variant segregating at high frequency between dogs and wolves (TableĀ 4). [source, 2016]
Proteins in the SLC6 family are involved in the plasma membrane transport of Dopamine, Noradrenaline, serotonin and GABA and are involved in neurotransmitter signaling [69]. [source, 2016]
Overall these results strongly suggest that there has been selection for changes in neurotransmitter metabolism during dog domestication, particularly in the catecholamine biosynthesis and transport pathways, which include Dopamine, Adrenaline and NorAdrenaline. [source, 2016]
The genes we find implicated in this pathway are involved in the synthesis, transport and degradation of a variety of neurotransmitters, particularly the catecholamines, which include Dopamine and Noradrenaline. [source, 2016]
Most clinically effective atypical antipsychotics show mixed Dopamine (D2) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT2A) antagonism, resulting in an improved safety profile regarding extrapyramidal symptoms and increased antipsychotic efficacy against psychosis [39]. [source, 2016]
The doses of Risperidone and Olanzapine were selected based on Dopamine D2 receptor occupancy and their potency to attenuate the challenge-induced hyperlocomotor behaviour. [source, 2016]