Latest research on Emtricitabine

Emtricitabine is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) for the treatment of HIV infection in adults. Emtricitabine is an analogue of cytidine. The drug works by inhibiting reverse transcriptase, the enzyme that copies HIV RNA into new viral DNA.

Latest findings

These guidelines recommended a preferred first-line treatment with a combination of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), Lamivudine (3TC) or Emtricitabine (FTC) and Efavirenz (EFV), with second-line treatment using two nucleoside analogues and a boosted protease inhibitor (PI) [1]. [source, 2016]
Although MECs for NRTIs are not established, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the active intracellular metabolites of Tenofovir and Emtricitabine have been established in one tail study, where both were found to have long terminal half-lives of 164 and 39 h, respectively [21]. [source, 2016]
Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral Emtricitabine and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) prevents acquisition of HIV infection in adults1–4 and is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States as part of a comprehensive package of preventative measures for individuals at substantial risk of HIV acquisition. [source, 2016]
Interestingly, there is also some evidence from a recent retrospective study that use of hepatitis B-active antiretroviral therapy for treatment of HIV (Lamivudine, Emtricitabine, and TFV) led to a lower incidence of hepatitis B acquisition than the use of antiretrovirals without hepatitis B activity. [source, 2016]
The first-line regimen was preferably a fixed-dose combination of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) 300 mg and Emtricitabine (FTC) 250 mg (Truvada®, Gilead) plus Efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg (Stocrin®, MSD). [source, 2016]
Of the 4831 pregnancies for which nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone therapy data were available, Zidovudine (ZDV) + lamivudine (3TC), Emtricitabine (FTC) + tenofovir (TDF), and Abacavir (ABC) + 3TC were the most common, accounting for 85 % (4106/4831) of all backbone therapy regimens administered. [source, 2016]
Recently raltegravir, an integrase inhibitor, has been estimated to have efficacy 0.94 in a combination therapy including Emtricitabine and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, and 0.997 during monotherapy [41]. [source, 2016]
Notably, our data did not identify a difference in outcomes among patients in the Tenofovir group who received Lamivudine or Emtricitabine. [source, 2016]
Our results are consistent with those from a metaanalysis of 12 randomized controlled trials that compared 4913 patients randomized to Lamivudine or Emtricitabine in addition to various ART combinations and found that the 2 agents are clinically interchangeable [25]. [source, 2016]
At the time of data collection, WHO guidelines recommended the use of either Nevirapine or Efavirenz in combination with Zidovudine and Lamivudine or with Tenofovir and Emtricitabine or Lamivudine for first-line ART [11]. [source, 2016]