Latest research on Eszopiclone

Eszopiclone, marketed by Sepracor under the brand-name Lunesta, is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent (viz., a sedative) used as a treatment for insomnia. Eszopiclone is the active stereoisomer of zopiclone, and belongs to the class of drugs known as cyclopyrrones. Its main selling point is that it is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for long-term use, unlike almost all other hypnotic sedatives, which are approved only for the relief of short-term (6-8 weeks) insomnia.

Eszopiclone indications

Sleep aids directed toward GABAA receptors, such as Zolpidem, Eszopiclone, and Zaleplon, are commonly used despite a paucity of published reports on the drug’s effects on metabolic processes. [source, 2016]
Therefore, treatment with the benzodiazepine-site PAMs, such as Alprazolam or Eszopiclone as an adjuvant may be effective in treating at least some aspects of MDD, although it remains unclear whether Alprazolam is effective in attenuating the core mood symptoms. [source, 2015]
However, to our knowledge, there have been no studies demonstrating the effects of clinically used benzodiazepines (i.e., TRZ, Estazolam, Quazepam, Flurazepam, Temazepam), Z-drugs (i.e., ZPD, Eszopiclone, and Zaleplon), and sympathomimetic psychostimulants (e.g., MPD and PML) on sleep-wake states of zebrafish larva. [source, 2015]
Of note, augmentation of fluoxetine with the non-benzodiazepine hypnotic Eszopiclone (3 mg/night) resulted in rapid, substantial, and sustained sleep improvement, as well as faster and greater antidepressant effects, compared with placebo in one 8-week trial. [source, 2015]
Sedative hypnotics, including Zaleplon (Sonata; King Pharmaceuticals, Bristol, TN, USA), Zolpidem (Ambien; Sanofi, Paris, France) [51], and Eszopiclone (Lunesta; Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc., Marlborough, MA, USA), are effective for the treatment of acute insomnia [52]. [source, 2015]
Sex differences in their pharmacokinetics and side effect profiles, including increased risk of cognitive impairment in the morning and motor vehicle accidents, led the US Food and Drug Administration to require the manufacturers of Ambien and Lunesta to lower recommended starting doses in women. [source, 2015]
For example, the now-recommended 1 mg dosage of Eszopiclone was ineffective in many PSG contrasts [source, 2015]
As recently reviewed [18], common adverse effects include headache, dizziness, nausea, somnolence, fatigue, and, with respect to Eszopiclone, an unpleasant or metallic taste. [source, 2014]
No GABA-A receptor modulator tested produced a sleep effect in dogs when administered during the day; Diazepam, Eszopiclone and Zolpidem all had significant paradoxical hyperarousing effects, as did the antihistamine Diphenhydramine (Figure 2). [source, 2014]
Eszopiclone had differential effects on sleep across species that were characterized by abnormal sleep architecture and qEEG profiles relative to vehicle-treated, inactive-phase control animals. [source, 2014]