Latest research on Exubera

Inhaled insulin is effective, well tolerated, and well accepted in patients with type 2 diabetes and provides glycemic control comparable to a conventional subcutaneous regimen.

Latest findings

For diabetes, we found that the reviews for seven drugs (Apidra, Symlin, Exubera, Januvia, Janumet, Victoza and Bydureon) discussed the rationale for use of surrogates and three of them (Symlin, Victoza and Bydureon) justified choosing glycaemic control as an outcome by clearly stating the evidence that corresponds to the highest level of evidence for surrogacy using the ICH-9 criteria. [source, 2015]
We found that a review for one drug in COPD (Arcapta Neohaler) mentioned a MID and reviews for 12 drugs in diabetes (Avandaryl, Symlin, Duetact, Exubera, Januvia, BYETTA, Cycloset, Onglyza, Kombiglyze XR, Victoza, Tradjenta and Bydureon) mentioned a threshold (number of patients achieving the target haemoglobin A1C level) that is linked to patient-centred outcomes. [source, 2015]
The idea of making inhalation as the route of delivering insulin is not entirely new; seven years ago when Exubera (Pfizer Inc's) received FDA approval it was thought to be a great achievement, but quickly faded out as concerns were raised about its safety regarding its effect on lung function, its heavy price tag and bulky inhaler.[10] [source, 2015]
All the below-mentioned factors favor inhaled insulin (Afrezza) than the earlier version Exubera.[51314] [source, 2015]
There is some evidence reduction in FEV1 of lung function, but overall long-term effects and the need for withdrawal has not yet been established as it is for its predecessor Exubera [Figure 5]. [source, 2015]
Inhaled insulin has been extensively studied and first inhalable formulation (Exubera) gained market approval in 2006 but was withdrawn in 2007 due to low cost-effectiveness. [source, 2015]
We excluded Exubera, an inhaled insulin, from the analyses; it was used only in Brazil between 2007 and 2008, accounting for less than 0.5% of market share. [source, 2015]
Exubera, Insulin human (originated from ribosomal DNA) inhalation powder has also been approved by FDA (food and drug administration) for children more than 6 years and adult patient. [source, 2014]
Skyler et al. studied the safety of pulmonary route when Exubera, that is, inhaled human insulin is administered by the young patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. [source, 2014]
They concluded that Exubera had no adverse effect on lung function [78]. [source, 2014]