Latest research on G-CSF

Filgrastim is a recombinant, non-pegylated human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) analogue manufactured by recombinant DNA technology using a strain of E. coli. It is marketed as the brand name Neupogen by Amgen. Chemically, it consists of 175 amino acid residues. The protein has an amino acid sequence that is identical to the natural sequence predicted from human DNA sequence analysis, except for the addition of an N-terminal methionine necessary for expression in E coli. Tbo-filgrastim, which is marketed by Sicor Biotech and FDA approved on August 29, 2012, contains the same active ingredient as Neupogen and is biologically similar, but it is formulated to be short-acting. On March 6, 2015, the FDA approved the biosimilar Zarxio (filgrastim-sndz) and is indicated for use in the same conditions as Neupogen. Zarxio is marketed by Sandoz.

Latest findings

Activation of stress transcriptional factors such as NF-κB and STAT proteins contributes to the upregulation of cytokines such as IL-6 and G-CSF (23) and may also be a consequence of exposure of cells and tissues to these cytokines (24). [source, 1998]
Furthermore, activation of Stat3 isoforms characteristic of IL-6 and G-CSF stimulation were identified as part of the activated Stat3 complex. [source, 1998]
These cells can mediate tumor cell killing through direct or bystander effects (37) and can participate in the cross-talk with CD8 T cells, which is instrumental in the rejection of established C26 colon carcinomas transduced to express G-CSF (15) and in the IL-12– mediated rejection of TSA mammary carcinoma (23). [source, 1998]
MIP-1α, by itself, is a modest mobilizer of myeloid stem and progenitor cells from the marrow to blood (6, 36), but has a synergistic effect when tested with other cytokines such as G-CSF (6). [source, 1997]
Mobilization regimens consisted of single-agent Doxorubicin 90 mg/m2 (n = 3) or Cyclophosphamide 6 g/m2 (n = 3) followed in either case by subcutaneous injection of 5 μg/kg of granulocyte–colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) daily for 5 d (Neupogen, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA). [source, 1997]
CD34+ cells (0.4 × 106/ well) were plated in a 24-well plate in IMDM containing 10% FCS containing 10−5 M 2-ME, 2 mM L-Glutamin, 50 U/ml penicillin, 50 μg/ml STREPTOMYCIN in the presence of either rHu IL-3 (30 ng/ ml), rHu G-CSF (50 ng/ml), rHu SCF (100 ng/ml), or mouse SDF-1 (100 ng/ml). [source, 1997]
We compared the chemotactic responses to SDF-1 of BM resident and mobilized blood circulating CD34+ cells from patients receiving high dose chemotherapy and/or G-CSF treatment. [source, 1997]
In the light of these results, it is of special interest that (1) a short (16-h) ex vivo incubation with IL-3 enhances the engraftment of mouse (55), sheep, and baboon HPC (56) into the BM of transplanted animals; (2) IL-3 has been shown to enhance mobilization when used in conjunction with G-CSF (45). [source, 1997]
This discrepancy may be due to differences in the purification of CD34+ cells; moreover, CD34+ cells were obtained with G-CSF treatment (7); it is possible that in this way pTα+ cells are mobilized from bone marrow, where we can detect pTα RNA in CD34+ cells (data not shown). [source, 1997]
In 1986, Gran et. al., described a patient with coincident MM and NHL with 2 serum monoclonal immunoglobulin [source, 1994]