Latest research on Gemcitabine

Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analog used as chemotherapy. It is marketed as Gemzar® by Eli Lilly and Company. As with fluorouracil and other analogues of pyrimidines, the drug replaces one of the building blocks of nucleic acids, in this case cytidine, during DNA replication. The process arrests tumor growth, as new nucleosides cannot be attached to the "faulty" nucleoside, resulting in apoptosis (cellular "suicide"). Gemcitabine is used in various carcinomas: non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer and breast cancer. It is being investigated for use in oesophageal cancer, and is used experimentally in lymphomas and various other tumor types.

Latest findings

Among patients with ovarian cancer, the most common “standard” regimens in the FAS and PAS (n=157 and n=79, respectively) were Carboplatin plus Paclitaxel (29% in both populations) and Carboplatin plus Gemcitabine (9% and 11%, respectively). [source, 2016]
Carboplatin (17% and 20%), Paclitaxel (16% and 14%), Topotecan (12% and 9%), Gemcitabine (10% and 15%), and bevacizumab (10% and 11%) were the most commonly used agents in “non-standard” regimens (for FAS and PAS, respectively). [source, 2016]
Among patients with non-small cell lung cancer, the most common “standard” regimens in the FAS and PAS (n=221 and n=70, respectively) were Carboplatin plus Gemcitabine (16% in both populations), Carboplatin plus Pemetrexed (11% and 6%), and Cisplatin plus Vinorelbine (6% and 13%). [source, 2016]
For refractory thymoma and thymic carcinoma, the NCCN guidelines [12] recommend single-agent or non-platinum-based chemotherapy, such as Etoposide [25], Gemcitabine [26], Paclitaxel [27], Ifosfamide [28], Pemetrexed [29], 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and Leucovorin [30], and Octreotide (including long acting-formulation) plus Prednisolone [31]. [source, 2016]
Additional inclusion criteria for the chemotherapy group were the patients 1) in whom chemotherapy was administrated in first-line and/or second-line treatment; 2) in whom at least two cycles of cisplatin/pemetrexed or carboplatin/paclitaxel combined regimens in first-line treatment; 3) in whom at least two cycles of single or combined regimens including Docetaxel, pemetrexed, Gemcitabine, and platinum in second-line treatment; and 4) without any anti-EGFR therapy before the occurrence of BM. [source, 2016]
Cisplatin, Carboplatin, Docetaxel, Vinorelbine, Gemcitabine, Gefitinib and Erlotinib were obtained from SellekChem. [source, 2016]
MPE-derived primary cultures were analyzed for their sensitivity to different chemotherapeutic drugs used in conventional adenocarcinoma lung therapies, Cisplatin, Carboplatin, Gemcitabine, vinolrebine and Docetaxel. [source, 2016]
This highlights that the two drugs for which there is a higher degree of sensitivity are Gemcitabine and Docetaxel. [source, 2016]
In Fig. 5a, b is shown as example the case of the MPE-derived r/11, where a strong synergism between Cisplatin and Gemcitabine could be observed. [source, 2016]
We conducted a more systematic analysis of the combinatorial effect of vinolrebine, Docetaxel and Gemcitabine in 6 samples, g/11, n/11, p/11, r/11, s/11 and u/11 and the results are reported in Table 3. [source, 2016]