Adalimumab is a human monoclonal antibody against TNF-alpha. It is produced by recombinant DNA technology using a mammalian cell expression system. It consists of 1330 amino acids and has a molecular weight of approximately 148 kilodaltons.
Biological agents have approved and marketed for the treatment of RA in Europe and the United States include anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) antibodies such as infliximab (Remicade) adalimumab (Humira), soluble TNF-α receptor etanercept (Enbrel), and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist anakinra (Kineret).
It is now well accepted to target the protein ligand of a receptor (e.g., Avastin targets VEGF; Remicade and Humira target TNFα) for the purpose of intervening in the signalling cascade that would otherwise have been activated by the ligand–receptor interaction.
(2) infliximab; Remicade, Centocor Inc. and (3) adalimumab; Humira, Abbott Laboratories Inc. (both TNF-α monoclonal antibodies) and one that targets IL-1 (4) anakinra; Kineret, Amgen Inc. A reason why this problem is arising for the above three strong TNF-α inhibitors may be because TNF-α has a dual nature.