Latest research on Levothyroxine

The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (monoiodotyrosine) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (diiodotyrosine) in the thyroglobulin. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form triiodothyronine which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism. [PubChem]

Levothyroxine side effects

Other substances can increase the hepatic metabolism of L-T4 (e.g. carbamazepine, Phenytoin, and Phenobarbital),16 whereas Estrogens such as oral contraceptives can increase TH requirements by increasing serum levels of T4-binding globulin.17 [source, 2016]
Suppression of TSH, using supraphysiological doses of L-T4, is used commonly to treat patients with Thyroid cancer in an effort to decrease the risk of recurrence.2–7 [source, 2016]
This is particularly relevant in the elderly population who are at increased risk for both cancer progression and L-T4 therapy side effects.12 [source, 2016]
In women receiving L-T4 for replacement alone, the dose should be increased by 30% as soon as pregnancy is confirmed. [source, 2016]
There are many possible causes for patient non-compliance, and special attention should be paid to try to address common psychosocial causes such as barriers to accessing the medication, difficulties with insurance coverage, literacy issues, and lack of understanding regarding the benefits of taking L-T4 as a medication. [source, 2016]
Because about 70% of an orally administered dose of T4 is absorbed, individuals unable to ingest L-T4 should initially receive 70% or less of their usual oral those when the medication is given intravenously. [source, 2016]
One possible rare cause of inability to achieve a suppressed TSH despite high doses of L-T4 is Thyroid hormone resistance, also referred to as impaired sensitivity to Thyroid hormone. [source, 2016]
Generally, patient preferences depend on the following factors for the treatment of Thyroid diseases: (a) cancerisation; (b) recurrence; (c) cost, including examination, surgery, medical therapy and re-examination; (d) psychological burden; (e) lifelong Levothyroxine replacement; (f) tolerance of medical therapies and associated side effects, such as anti-Thyroid gland medicine; (g) education level; (h) income; and (i) medical insurance. [source, 2016]
VAAT thickness decreased significantly after Levothyroxine therapy. [source, 2016]
However, statistically significant decreases may be obtained by increasing the dose of Levothyroxine used in treatment, which is expected to further decrease TSH values and by prolonging the treatment duration. [source, 2015]