Latest research on Lisdexamfetamine

Lisdexamfetamine (L-lysine-d-amphetamine) is a prodrug of the psychostimulant d-amphetamine coupled with the essential amino acid L-lysine. It was developed so that the amphetamine psychostimulant is released and activated more slowly as the prodrug molecule is hydrolyzed consequently cleaving off the amino acid-during the first pass through the intestines and/or the liver. Amphetamines target the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). Amphetamine is also believed to exert its effects by binding to the monoamine transporters (the dopamine transporter or DAT) and increasing extracellular levels of the biogenic amines dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and serotonin.

Lisdexamfetamine indications

One proof-of-concept trial showed Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate add-on to Escitalopram to be more effective than placebo in treating depressive residual symptoms [83]. [source, 2015]
Known as a stimulant, Lisdexamfetamine (LDX), an inactive and water-soluble prodrug, after it is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, is converted to l-lysine, an essential amino acid, and Dextroamphetamine, which has a therapeutic effect in the reduction of ADHD symptoms. [source, 2015]
Previous medication trials included Ethosuximide for 2 weeks (no effect); a trial of Lisdexamfetamine (resulted in agitation, mood and sleep dysregulation, and possible hallucinations); and Citalopram 20 mg, which may have led to further decline in ADL. [source, 2015]
Human laboratory studies found that orally administered Lisdexamfetamine produced a slower onset of peak subjective effects (3–4h) compared to d-amphetamine (1.5h; Jasinski and Krishnan, 2009a, 2009b). [source, 2015]
Consistent with these human results, preclinical studies have also demonstrated that Lisdexamfetamine has both a slower onset and a prolonged duration of action of neurochemical and behavioral effects compared to d-amphetamine (Rowley et al., 2012). [source, 2015]
We hypothesized that Lisdexamfetamine administration would produce a slower onset and longer duration of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects than d-amphetamine. [source, 2015]
Test sessions were conducted at 24h, 48h, and 72h after 3.2mg/kg Lisdexamfetamine administration because of the prolonged duration of effects. [source, 2015]
Effects of each Lisdexamfetamine dose were determined twice, whereas effects of d-amphetamine doses were determined once. [source, 2015]
The %CAR and response rates were analyzed using two-way repeated-measures analyses of variance with Lisdexamfetamine or d-amphetamine dose and time as the main fixed effects (Prism 6.0f for Mac, GraphPad). [source, 2015]
Once Cocaine versus food choice was stable, test periods were conducted to determine Lisdexamfetamine or d-amphetamine (positive control) treatment effects on Cocaine versus food choice. [source, 2015]