Latest research on Lisdexamfetamine

Lisdexamfetamine (L-lysine-d-amphetamine) is a prodrug of the psychostimulant d-amphetamine coupled with the essential amino acid L-lysine. It was developed so that the amphetamine psychostimulant is released and activated more slowly as the prodrug molecule is hydrolyzed consequently cleaving off the amino acid-during the first pass through the intestines and/or the liver. Amphetamines target the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). Amphetamine is also believed to exert its effects by binding to the monoamine transporters (the dopamine transporter or DAT) and increasing extracellular levels of the biogenic amines dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and serotonin.

Lisdexamfetamine interactions

Specifically, Adderall XR® (Amphetamine mixed salts [MAS-XR]; Shire Canada Inc.), Concerta® (Methylphenidate HCl extended release [OROS-MPH]; Janssen Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada) and generic, Biphentin® (Methylphenidate HCl controlled release [MPH-CR]; Purdue Pharma, Pickering, ON, Canada) and Vyvanse® (Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate [LDX]; Shire Canada Inc.) are available in Canada for the treatment of ADHD [18, 19]. [source, 2016]
Of these, the most common were Humira with 5 unique ads and Cymbalta and Vyvanse with 3 unique ads each. [source, 2016]
Of the 50 (51.5%) participants who were being treated with medication for their ADHD symptoms, 6 received Ritalin, 17 received Concerta, 11 received Vyvanse, 9 received Adderal, 3 received Dexadrine, 3 received Stratterra and 1 received another medication. [source, 2015]
Data from a pooled sample of children and adolescent patients (n = 2357), aged 6–17 years, with a confirmed Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version IV text revision (DSM-IV-TR) primary diagnosis of ADHD, who participated in one of seven Phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of Guanfacine hydrochloride extended-release (GXR; Intuniv, Shire US, Inc., Wayne, Pennsylvania, USA) or Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (Vyvanse, Shire US, Inc.) [27–33]. [source, 2015]
One proof-of-concept trial showed Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate add-on to Escitalopram to be more effective than placebo in treating depressive residual symptoms [83]. [source, 2015]
Known as a stimulant, Lisdexamfetamine (LDX), an inactive and water-soluble prodrug, after it is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, is converted to l-lysine, an essential amino acid, and Dextroamphetamine, which has a therapeutic effect in the reduction of ADHD symptoms. [source, 2015]
Previous medication trials included Ethosuximide for 2 weeks (no effect); a trial of Lisdexamfetamine (resulted in agitation, mood and sleep dysregulation, and possible hallucinations); and Citalopram 20 mg, which may have led to further decline in ADL. [source, 2015]
Lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse) is a Food and Drug Administration–approved medication for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and a prodrug that requires enzymatic hydrolysis by red blood cells for conversion to the active metabolite d-amphetamine and the amino acid L-lysine (Pennick, 2010). [source, 2015]
Human laboratory studies found that orally administered Lisdexamfetamine produced a slower onset of peak subjective effects (3–4h) compared to d-amphetamine (1.5h; Jasinski and Krishnan, 2009a, 2009b). [source, 2015]
Consistent with these human results, preclinical studies have also demonstrated that Lisdexamfetamine has both a slower onset and a prolonged duration of action of neurochemical and behavioral effects compared to d-amphetamine (Rowley et al., 2012). [source, 2015]