Latest research on N-acetylcysteine

Acetylcysteine (also known as N-acetylcysteine or N-acetyl-L-cysteine or NAC) is primarily used as a mucolytic agent and in the management of acetaminophen poisoning. It is a derivative of cysteine with an acetyl group attached to the amino group of cysteine. NAC is essentially a prodrug that is converted to cysteine (in the intestine by the enzyme aminoacylase 1) and absorbed in the intestine into the blood stream. Cysteine is a key constituent to glutathione and hence administration of acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione stores. Acetylcysteine can also be used as a general antioxidant which can help mitigate symptoms for a variety of diseases exacerbated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). For instance, acetylcysteine is commonly used in individuals with renal impairment to prevent the precipitation of acute renal failure. Acetylcysteine has been shown to have efficacy in treating mild to moderate traumatic brain injury including ischemic brain injury, particularly in reducing neuronal losses, and also reducing cognitive and neurological symptoms when administered promptly after injury. N-acetylcysteine is now widely used in the treatment of HIV, and it has reported efficacy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and contrast-induced nephropathy. Acetylcysteine is also being successfully used to treat a variety of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders including cocaine, cannabis, and smoking addictions, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, autism, compulsive and grooming disorders, schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder. Recent data also shows that N-acetylcysteine inhibits muscle fatigue and can be used to enhance performance in endurance events and in exercise and endurance training.

Latest findings

Clinically, the standard prophylaxis for RIN is intravenous hydration and/or the oral administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). [source, 2016]
APO, DPI, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and LY294002 (LY) were provided from Sigma-Aldrich. [source, 2016]
In these analyses, medication costs were assessed and include any of the eight groups of prescription medications used to possibly treat IPF (corticosteroids, Azathioprine, Cyclophosphamide, N-acetylcysteine, Sildenafil, interferon-gamma, bosentan, etanercept). [source, 2016]
The following inhibitors were used: a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, 10 μM diphenyl iodide (DPI); a ROS scavenger, 20 μM N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (all purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA); and PI3K inhibitor LY-294002, 20 μM (L-1023, A.G. [source, 2016]
Oral Acetylcysteine 1.2 g BiD, followed by oral Prednisolone 30 mg OD was started when the serum creatinine increased to 428 μmol/L. [source, 2016]
Conversely, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) abrogated the IH-associated effects and partially restored a control like phenotype and functions. [source, 2016]
N-acetylcysteine is a well-characterized antioxidant, which has been used for many years in experimental research. [source, 2016]
Two representative examples of Lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine and its amide are explained below. [source, 2016]
N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP), capsazepine (CPZ), 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB), Clotrimazole (CTZ), 2-(12-hydroxydodeca-5,10-diynyl)-3,5,6-trimethyl-p-benzoquinone (AA861), N-ACETYL-L-cysteine (NAC), dimethylfumarate (DMF), metaphosphoric acid, triethanolamine, and Cyclosporine A (CsA) were from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). [source, 2016]
Pretreatment for 3 h with the ROS scavengers N-ACETYL-L-cysteine (NAC) and tiron, each at 1 mM, significantly reduced ROS levels produced after treatment with either 20 mM APAP or 1 mM H2O2 for additional 3 h (Figures 2A,B). [source, 2016]