Latest research on Raloxifene

A second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It has estrogen agonist effects on bone and cholesterol metabolism but behaves as a complete estrogen antagonist on mammary gland and uterine tissue. [PubChem]

Raloxifene and alcohol

Under anaerobic conditions, the bacteria were incubated with the indicated enzyme inhibitors, including 2,2’-dipyridyl (iron chelator), Oxypurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor), 4-methypyrazole (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor), Dicoumarol (lipoamide dehydrogenase inhibitor), Raloxifene (aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor), auranofin (thioredoxin inhibitor) and oxonic acid (Uricase inhibitor), at a concentration of 20 μM at 37°C for 0.5 h and then treated with the MBC of CYA or MEQ at 37°C for 3 h to calculate the viable cell counts or for 0.5 h to detect the level of ROS. [source, 2015]
Patients who met the following criteria were excluded from the study: history of anti-resorptive drugs use such as Bisphosphonates, Calcitonin, Raloxifene, history of estrogen replacement therapy during last five years, secondary osteoporosis due to the surgery or diseases such as diabetes, thyrotoxicosis, hyperparathyroidism, scleroderma, malabsorption syndromes and gastric surgery and drug induced osteoporosis due to immunosuppressive drugs, anticonvulsants drugs, Levothyroxin, Cyclosporine, Heparin or alcohol. [source, 2014]
At 24 h post-transfection, both the cells were treated with Raloxifene (10–100 µM) or Phenol red-free medium containing 5% charcoal-stripped FBS (HyClone Laboratories; Logan, Utah, USA) and 0.1% alcohol as a control for 4 days. [source, 2014]
Additionally, a second model was adjusted for smoking, BMI, alcoholism, previous fracture, kidney disease, malabsorption, stroke, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, Parkinson disease, thyroid disease and use of proton pump inhibitors (no use, ≤1 year, >1 year), anxiolytics, sedatives, antidepressants, antihypertensives, corticosteroids (no use, ≤1 year, >1 year), Raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and thiazolidinediones. [source, 2013]
A second ‘model 2’ adjusted additionally for smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcoholism, previous fracture, kidney disease, malabsorption, stroke, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, thyroid disease, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) (no use, ≤1 year, >1 year), anxiolytics, sedatives, antidepressants, antihypertensives, oral corticosteroids (no use, ≤1 year, >1 year), Raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy and thiazolidinediones. [source, 2013]
Family history of osteoporosis and fractures, alcohol and tobacco use, and medication and supplement use, notably use of calcium and Vitamin D supplements, hormone-replacement therapy, Raloxifene, and bisphosphonates did not differ between the groups. [source, 2010]
Exclusion criteria were alcoholism, neoplasia, hyper- or hypocalcemia, and treatment with Vitamin D, Alendronate, Risedronate, zoledronate, Raloxifene, PTH 1-34, strontium ranelate, or Estrogens. [source, 2010]
Incidence reductions could have resulted from increases in the use of chemopreventive or other pharmaceuticals (for example, Tamoxifen, Raloxifene, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, and statins) thought to protect against breast cancer [1,19,44] or from changes in relevant lifestyle risk factors such as the percentage of overweight and obese individuals, number of alcoholic beverages consumed, or level of physical activity [45]. [source, 2009]
Potential confounding variables collected from CANDOO included age; height; weight; menopausal status; age at menopause; lumbar spine, trochanter, femoral neck, and Ward's triangle bone mineral density (measurements were made by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry using Hologic or Lunar densitometers); prevalent vertebral fracture status (yes/no); and prevalent non-vertebral fracture status (yes/no); smoking status (never, previously, previously with interruptions, currently, currently with interruptions); family history of fracture (yes/no); number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week (including beer, wine and liquor); number of falls during the last 12 months; dietary calcium intake per day (measured as mg/d and estimated by a food frequency questionnaire); number of minutes spent exercising per week (such as walking, stair climbing, jogging, swimming, bicycling, dancing, skiing and others); current medication use (Etidronate, Alendronate fluoride, Raloxifene, hormone replacement or corticosteroids); calcium supplement status (yes/no); Vitamin D supplement status (yes/no); and co-morbid conditions (lung disease, liver disease, thyroid disease, cancer, visual problems that are not corrected by eyeglasses or contacts, osteoporosis, inflammatory bowel disease, epilepsy, coronary disease, cerebrovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and kidney failure). [source, 2002]