Latest research on Raloxifene

A second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It has estrogen agonist effects on bone and cholesterol metabolism but behaves as a complete estrogen antagonist on mammary gland and uterine tissue. [PubChem]

Raloxifene side effects

We previously reported that the second-generation SERM Raloxifene inhibits arthritis and bone loss in CIA, which after prophylactic treatment was associated with decreased serum levels of IL-6 and reduced spleen TNF mRNA levels [26]. [source, 2016]
With regard to the bone quality improvement effects of SERMs, Raloxifene has been reported to decrease homocysteine levels and to decrease pentosidine cross-linking [12, 14]. [source, 2015]
With respect to lipid metabolism, Raloxifene and bazedoxifene have previously been reported to decrease LDL-C, but no consensus has been achieved about the effects on HDL-C or TG [25, 26]. [source, 2015]
HDL-C is reported to increase with Raloxifene and bazedoxifene [12, 17]. [source, 2015]
Raloxifene also decreases inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 that cause arteriosclerosis [29-31]. [source, 2015]
In a 12 week double-blind, placebo-controlled study, orally administered Raloxifene improved probabilistic association learning and significantly increased fMRI blood Oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus relative to placebo, in male and female schizophrenic patients (Kindler et al., 2015). [source, 2015]
The study concluded that after 1 year, Raloxifene 60 mg/d decreased the risk of new clinical vertebral fractures by 68% compared to placebo in the overall study population and by 60% in women with prevalent vertebral fractures, who are at a greater risk of subsequent fractures. [source, 2015]
Raloxifene, however, is able to increase BMD both in aromatase-deficient men [134] and in men with prostate cancer [136, 137]. [source, 2015]
Raloxifene, a second-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator, is approved for use in the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and for breast cancer in women and can have beneficial effects on brain function including increased cortical plasticity. [source, 2015]
Follow-up, protected post hoc least significant difference tests with Holm–Bonferroni corrections to control for familywise error rate in Table 3 show significant increases for Raloxifene relative to placebo treatment in relation to LMI (P<0.001), LMII (P<0.001) and TMT-A (P<0.001), in which all survived correction for multiple comparisons. [source, 2015]