Latest research on Tenofovir

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (a prodrug of tenofovir), marketed by Gilead Sciences under the trade name Viread®, belongs to a class of antiretroviral drugs known as nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nRTIs), which block reverse transcriptase, an enzyme crucial to viral production in HIV-infected people. [Wikipedia] In vivo tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is converted to tenofovir, an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (nucleotide) analog of adenosine 5'-monophosphate.

Tenofovir and alcohol

[1] The exact mechanisms are unclear, but a combination of factors are thought to contribute to decreased bone mineral density in HIV-infected people including lifestyle (e.g. diet, exercise, smoking and alcohol), genetic influences, as well as direct effects of HIV infection [2] and administration of antiretrovirals, such as Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) [1], [3], [4], protease inhibitors (PIs) [1] and Zidovudine. [source, 2012]
Exclusion criteria included dual infections of CHB and chronic hepatitis C (ICD-CM codes 070.54, 070.70 or V02.62), co-existent alcoholic liver disease (ICD-9-CM codes 571.0, 571.1 or 571.3), alcoholic cirrhosis (ICD-9-CM code 571.2) or biliary cirrhosis (ICD-9-CM code 571.6), pre-existing liver cirrhosis at the time of or before the diagnosis of CHB, and CHB treatment (Lamivudine, Adefovir dipivoxil, Entecavir, telbivudine, Tenofovir, or peginterferon alfa-2a) before the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. [source, 2016]
The independent variables were dichotomised as follows: HIV status (positive/negative); skin colour (white/other); marital status (has a stable partner/no stable partner); schooling (≤7 years/≥8 years); employment (yes/no); monthly family income (≤US$750/>US$750); receives pension (yes/no); smokes (yes/never or ex-smoker); alcohol use (currently drinks or used to drink/never drank); hot flushes (yes/no); depression (yes/no); vaginal dryness (yes/no); urinary incontinence (yes/no); weight gain (yes/no); muscle and joint pain (yes/no); self-perception of health (excellent or good/poor or very poor); suffers or has already suffered some form of physical or emotional violence (yes/no); has been forced to have intercourse (yes/no); uses statins (yes/no); chronic disease: hypothyroidism (yes/no); FSH (<40/≥40), LH (<25.7/≥25.7); age at first sexual intercourse (≤19 years/≥20 years); other type of sexual intercourse in the preceding month: giving oral sex (yes/no), receiving oral sex (yes/no); woman lives with sexual partner (yes/no); number of sexual partners in the previous year (none/≥1); partner underwent HIV testing (yes/no); quality of life following diagnosis (changed/unchanged); CD4 cell count (<350/≥350); CD4 cell count nadir (<199/≥200); use of antiretroviral drug 3TC (Lamivudine, Epivir; yes/no); use of antiretroviral drug Tenofovir (yes/no); use of antiretroviral drug Lamivudine/zidovudine (yes/no); use of antiretroviral drug Efavirenz (yes/no); antiretroviral drug used in the past: Lamivudine/zidovudine (yes/no); and antiretroviral drug used in the past: Efavirenz (yes/no). [source, 2014]
We suggest active monitoring for AEs, correct dosing by body weight, correction of dehydration, and regular monitoring of renal function and electrolytes, particularly in those with risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, HIV-associated nephropathy, vomiting and diarrhoea, dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, diuretic usage, alcohol abuse, and use of potentially nephrotoxic drugs such as Tenofovir, cotrimoxazole). [source, 2013]
Microbicide delivery systems- Microbicides can be formulated as gels, foams, rings, hydrogels,[23] silicone elastomer gels,[24] diaphragm, quick-dissolve polyvinyl alcohol based films,[25] and bioadhesive vaginal tablets[26] (Emtricitabine and Tenofovir can be used). [source, 2012]
It includes both traditional, non-HIV-related risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and opiate use, low body weight, and Vitamin D deficiency; and also HIV-related factors such as direct viral and inflammatory effects on bone resorption43,44 and the effects of ART, especially Tenofovir. [source, 2012]
This is due to both HIV-specific factors (i.e., use of Tenofovir, starting antiretroviral therapy) and generalized factors that are present in this population (including hypogonadism, smoking, alcohol use, and low body weight). [source, 2012]
The earlier introduction and high uptake of Tenofovir in HIV infected patients [38] is consistent with a more rapid decline in non alcoholic liver disease hospitalizations amongst the HBV/HIV co-infected cohort and with an impact of HBV therapy at a population level. [source, 2011]