Latest research on Zidovudine

A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia. [PubChem]

Latest findings

There has been a gradual shift of patients from older combinations (e.g. those including Stavudine, Didanosine, Zidovudine or Nevirapine) onto this single-tablet regimen. [source, 2016]
All the patients included in the study initiated ART with reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) drugs, that is, two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), Zidovudine (AZT) or Stavudine (d4T) with Lamivudine (3TC) + one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), either Nevirapine (NVP) or Efavirenz (EFV) as per the standard national AIDS programme guidelines.24 [source, 2016]
In general the initiation of ART has decreased the prevalence of HIVAC in HIC, although use of Zidovudine (AZT) based regimens may be associated with greater risk of cardiomyopathy [15, 27]. [source, 2016]
Zidovudine, a reverse nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor, inhibits mitochondrial DNA polymerase, causes mitochondrial damage, and leads to focal myocardial necrosis [30]. [source, 2016]
The three major classes of ART, protease inhibitors (PIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), have all been associated with some degree of dyslipidemia; PIs and the NRTIs, Stavudine and Zidovudine, are indirectly implicated in the development of atherosclerosis via significant alterations in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance [45, 47, 48]. [source, 2016]
A quarter of these patients received no treatment during the study, while the remaining patients were treated with Zidovudine and/or Didanosine for a part of the study (S1 Table). [source, 2016]
South African ART guidelines at the time of this study recommended an NNRTI plus 2 NRTIs (Stavudine or Zidovudine, each with Lamivudine) as first-line therapy. [source, 2016]
Patients with contra-indications to Efavirenz were given either Truvada® plus Zidovudine 300 mg or Truvada® plus lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg (Kaletra®, Abbott). [source, 2016]
During the period before the publication of Namibia’s 2010 ART guidelines, TDF had been prescribed as part of the nucleoside backbone of first line ART only when Zidovudine or Stavudine were contraindicated [20]. [source, 2016]
Of the 4831 pregnancies for which nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone therapy data were available, Zidovudine (ZDV) + lamivudine (3TC), Emtricitabine (FTC) + tenofovir (TDF), and Abacavir (ABC) + 3TC were the most common, accounting for 85 % (4106/4831) of all backbone therapy regimens administered. [source, 2016]