Latest research on Zolpidem

Zolpidem is a prescription short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that potentiates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to benzodiazepine receptors which are located on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. Zolpidem is used for the short-term treatment of insomnia. It works quickly (usually within 15 minutes) and has a short half-life (2-3 hours). It is classified as an imidazopyridine. As an anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant, the beneficial effects start to emerge at 10 and 20 times the dose required for sedation, respectively. For that reason, it has never been approved for either muscle relaxation or seizure prevention. Recently, zolpidem has been cited in various medical reports mainly in the United Kingdom as waking persistent vegetative state (PVS) patients, and dramatically improving the conditions of people with brain injuries. [Wikipedia]

Latest findings

Though not statistically significant, those taking Clopidogrel, Gabapentin, Citalopram, Insulin, Hydrochlorothiazide, Metoprolol, Zolpidem, and Nitroglycerine were trending towards an increased risk of collision. [source, 2016]
Numerous other medications in this study were also trending towards an increased risk of motor vehicle collision, but were not found statistically significant included: Clopidogrel, Gabapentin, Citalopram, Insulin, Hydrochlorothiazide, Metoprolol, Zolpidem, and Nitroglycerin. [source, 2016]
Zolpidem, a sleep-promoting medication, has consistently shown in three other studies to be associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle collision [32, 43, 44]. [source, 2016]
Several pharmacological therapies for insomnia have been formulated, including benzodiazepine receptor antagonists (BzRAs) (eg, benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics, such as Zolpidem, Zaleplon, and Eszopiclone), Melatonin, Melatonin-receptor agonists, and various antidepressant medications including Quetiapine, Amitriptyline, Mirtazapine, and Trazodone. [source, 2016]
Additionally, no head-to-head comparisons with nonpharmacological therapies or even competing pharmacological therapies were performed to assess superiority/inferiority (eg, Zolpidem versus suvorexant, suvorexant versus CBT). [source, 2016]
However, if pharmacological therapy is indicated, the current AASM guidelines recommend nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics (ie, Zolpidem, Zaleplon, Eszopiclone) or Melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor agonists (ie, ramelteon) as first-line agents, followed by sedating antidepressants and benzodiazepines for patients failing first-line therapies. [source, 2016]
Of relevance, however, Ma et al20 compared the electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectral density profile of suvorexant with placebo, along with comparisons to gaboxadol 15 mg, Zolpidem 10 mg, and Trazodone 150 mg during REM and non-REM Sleep. [source, 2016]
Allowed concomitant medications included hypnotics (eg, Zolpidem or chloral hydrate), antiparkinson drugs, and Lorazepam. [source, 2016]
The exposure included benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics that bind to the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, such as Zolpidem, Zaleplon, and Eszopiclone. [source, 2016]
Zolpidem, a GABA agonist, may improve motor function, dysarthria and ocular abnormalities according to anecdotal evidence from case reports [92]. [source, 2016]